Efficient Conversion of Sponge Iron from Iron Ore-Coal Composite

Rajnish Kumar Rai, Dheeraj Kumar Verma


Today India stands as the largest producer of coal based sponge iron using calibrated ore and non-coking coal. Production of sponge iron, via the direct reduction route using rotary kilns, continues to experience significant growth in India. Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal. Unlike the conventional process, the
process does not require coking coal; the coke ovens in a steel plant are expensive and polluting units. Direct reduction, has been developed to overcome these difficulties of conventional blast furnaces. Demand of sponge iron and pre-reduced pellets for the manufacture of different varieties of steel is increasing day by day and new solid reductant based sponge iron plants are being commissioned. In the existing blast furnace, an increase in production by at least 25 to 35% can be achieved by using pre-reduced iron ore. Pre-reduced iron ore pellets have been established as a good substitute for steel scrap in an electric arc furnace, which enhances the productivity of the arc furnace. Also majority of fines which are generated during the course of handling, mining, transportation etc. are exported at a through away price which need to be
utilized by making iron ore pellets for sponge iron making.


Rotary kiln, iron ore-coal composite, sponge iron, reduction

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