Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Review on Synthesis and Characterisation of Nanoclusters

Dr Esther Leena Preethi, Petricia Sara Peter


Nanoclusters are materials with size less than 2 nm. Because of their small size and high surface area, they have properties which can be used for various applications like bio-sensing, catalysis, fuel cells etc. The synthesis techniques are carried out in such a way that the size-selection of nanoclusters take place. The synthesis methods discussed in this review include both top-down and bottom-up techniques. The different characterization techniques taken into consideration are X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The distinct properties of nanoclusters were exemplified and confirmed.


Nanoclusters, synthesis, nanoparticles, top-down, bottom-up

Full Text:



Gracia-Pinilla M., Martínezs E., Vidaurri G.S., et al. Deposition of size-selected Cu nanoparticles by inert gas condensation. Nanoscale research letters. 2010; 5(1): 180-188.

Al Dosari H.M., Ayesh A.I. Nanocluster production for solar cell applications. Journal of Applied Physics. 2013; 114(5): 054305.

Barman P., Deka A., Mondal S., et al. Surface scaling behaviour of size-selected Ag-nanocluster film growing under subsequent shadowing process. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2020; 53(32): 325302.

Kylián O., Valeš V., Polonskyi O., et al. Deposition of Ptnanoclusters by means of gas aggregation cluster source. Materials Letters. 2012; 79: 229-231.

Ahmed H., Awwad F., Abu-Eishah S.I. et al. Mechanisms of Ti nanocluster formation by inert gas condensation. J. Mater. Res. 2013: 28(18).

Masubuchi T., Eckhard J.F., Lange K., et al. An efficient laser vaporization source for chemically modified metal clusters characterized by thermodynamics and kinetics. Review of Scientific Instruments. 2018; 89(2): 023104.

van der Tol J., Janssens, E. Size-dependent velocity distributions and temperatures of metal clusters in a helium carrier gas. Physical Review A. 2020; 102(2): 022806.

Pradeep, T. Nano: the essentials: understanding nanoscience and nanotechnology. US: McGraw-Hill Education; 2007.

Cheng C., Xu F., Gu H. Facile synthesis and morphology evolution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in different polyol processes. New Journal of Chemistry. 2011; 35(5): 1072-1079.

Yang C, Yan H. A green and facile approach for synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with tunable sizes and morphologies. Materials Letters. 2012; 73: 129-132.

Cheng C., Wen Y., Xu X, et al. Tunable synthesis of carboxyl functionalized magnetite nanocrystal clusters with uniform size. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2009; 19(46): 8782-8788.

Shahsavari S., Hadian-Ghazvini S., Saboor F.H., et al. Ligand functionalized copper nanoclusters for versatile applications in catalysis, sensing, bioimaging, and optoelectronics. Materials Chemistry Frontiers. 2019; 3(11): 2326-2356.

Wang Y., Shi Y.E., Li T., et al. Ligand-assisted reduction and reprecipitation synthesis of highly luminescent metal nanoclusters. Nanoscale Advances. 2019; 1(2): 834-839.

Yang S., Chai J., Song Y., et al. In situ two-phase ligand exchange: a new method for the synthesis of alloy nanoclusters with precise atomic structures. Journal of the American Chemical Society.2017; 139(16): 5668-5671.

Yuan X., Chng L.L., Yang J, et al. Miscible-Solvent-Assisted Two-Phase Synthesis of Monolayer-Ligand-Protected Metal Nanoclusters with Various Sizes. Advanced Materials. 2020; 32(9): 1906063.

Wang Z., Chen B., Rogach A.L. Synthesis, optical properties and applications of light-emitting copper nanoclusters. Nanoscale Horizons. 2017; 2(3): 135-146.

Ding R., Chen Q., Luo Q., et al. Salt template-assisted in situ construction of Runanoclusters and porous carbon: excellent catalysts toward hydrogen evolution, ammonia-borane hydrolysis, and 4-nitrophenol reduction. Green Chemistry. 2020; 22(3): 835-842.

Ouyang X., Wang M., Guo L., et al. DNA Nanoribbon-Templated Self-Assembly of Ultrasmall Fluorescent Copper Nanoclusters with Enhanced Luminescence. Angewandte Chemie. 2020; 132(29): 11934-11942.

Shen Z., Duan H., Frey H. Water-soluble fluorescent Ag nanoclusters obtained from multiarm star poly (acrylic acid) as “molecular hydrogel” templates. Advanced Material. 2007; 19(3): 349-352.

Li R., Wang C., Bo F., et al. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Fluorescent Ag Nanoclusters in Aqueous Solution. ChemPhysChem. 2012; 13(8): 2097-2101.

Sathya A., Kalyani S., Ranoo S., et al. One-step microwave-assisted synthesis of water-dispersible Fe3O4 magnetic nanoclusters for hyperthermia applications. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. 2017; 439: 107-113.

Wang H., Wang L., Nemoto Y., et al. Microwaveassisted rapid synthesis of platinum nanoclusters with high surface area. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology. 2010; 10(10): 6489-6494.

Murty B.S., Shankar P., Raj B., et al. Textbook of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Germany: Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.

Yang H., Shen C., Song N., et al. Facile synthesis of hollow nano-spheres and hemispheres of cobalt by polyol reduction. Nanotechnology. 2010; 21(37): 375602.


  • There are currently no refbacks.