Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Carlos Armenta-Deu, David Arroyo del Saz


The paper analyzes different configurations, direct-PV, PV-battery, either with PWM or MPP
regulator, and hybrid-PV, of stand-alone PV installation operating with high voltage α-Si panels that
supplies energy to a DC-AC external circuit. Global efficiency is determined as a function of voltage
conversion ratio and individual element efficiency. The paper concludes that direct-PV is the most
efficient mode with average performance ratio (PR) of 92.2% followed by PV-battery with MPPT,
68.3% of efficiency, and PWM regulator with 40.3% efficiency. Hybrid mode only achieves 30.3%. The
analysis of results shows PV-battery with PWM is suitable for DC applications while hybrid mode is
better for AC ones. PV-battery mode with MPP regulator can be used in AC or DC applications.
Intermediate voltage ratio from 24 VDC to either 110 V or 220 V represents the best option among the
three analyzed, 12 V, 24 V and 48 V.

Full Text:



Jhud Mikhail Aberilla, Alejandro Gallego-Schmid, Laurence Stamford, Adisa Azapagic (2020) Design and environmental sustainability assessment of small-scale off-grid energy systems for remote rural communities, Applied Energy, Volume 258, Article 114004

Philip Sandwell, Ngai Lam Alvin Chan, Samuel Foster, Divyam Nagpal, Jenny Nelson (2016) Off-grid solar photovoltaic systems for rural electrification and emissions mitigation in India, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 156, p.147-156

Evangelos Tsiaras, Demetrios N. Papadopoulos, Constantinos N. Antonopoulos, Vagelis G. Papadakis, Frank A. Coutelieris (2020) Planning and assessment of an off-grid power supply system for small settlements, Renewable Energy, Volume 149, p.1271-1281

Taskin Jamal, Tania Urmee, G. M. Shafiullah (2020) Planning of off-grid power supply systems in remote areas using multi-criteria decision analysis, Energy, Volume 201, Article 117580

Tharindu Prabatha, James Hager, Bruno Carneiro, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq (2020) Analyzing energy options for small-scale off-grid communities: A Canadian case study, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 249, Article 119320

Marco Bortolini, Mauro Gamberi, Alessandro Graziani, Francesco Pilati (2015) Economic and environmental bi-objective design of an off-grid photovoltaic–battery–diesel generator hybrid energy system, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 106, p.1024-1038

V. Salas, W. Suponthana, R. A. Salas (2015) Overview of the off-grid photovoltaic diesel batteries systems with AC loads, Applied Energy, Volume 157, p.195-216

Kapila Bandara, Tracy Sweet, Janaka Ekanayake (2012) Photovoltaic applications for off-grid electrification using novel multi-level inverter technology with energy storage, Renewable Energy, Volume 37, Issue 1, p.82-88

Raveendhra Dogga, M.K. Pathak (2019) Recent trends in solar PV inverter topologies, Solar Energy, Volume 183, p.57-73

Ankit, Sarat Kumar Sahoo, Sukruedee Sukchai, Franco Fernando Yanine (2018) Review and comparative study of single-stage inverters for a PV system, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 91, p.962-986

Large grid-connected photovoltaic power plants: Best practices for the design and operation of large photovoltaic power plants (2017) A. Woyte and S. Goy, The Performance of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems: Modelling, Measurements and Assessments. Ed. By Nicola Pearsall. Woodhead Publishing, Chapter 11, p.321-337

G. Notton, V. Lazarov, L. Stoyanov (2010) Optimal sizing of a grid-connected PV system for various PV module technologies and inclinations, inverter efficiency characteristics and locations, Renewable Energy, Volume 35, Issue 2, p.541-554

A. Aganza-Torres, V. Cárdenas, M. Pacas, M. González (2016) An efficiency comparative analysis of isolated multi-source grid-connected PV generation systems based on a HF-link micro-inverter approach, Solar Energy, Volume 127, p.239-249

Letícia T. Scarabelot, Carlos R. Rambo, Giuliano A. Rampinelli (2018) A relative power-based adaptive hybrid model for DC/AC average inverter efficiency of photovoltaics systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 92, p.470-477

Mughal, S. Sood, Y. R. & Jarial, R. K. (2018) A Review on Solar Photovoltaic Technology and Future Trends, International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science, Engineering and Information Technology “IJSRCSEIT”, Volume 4

Jung Y. Huang, Chien Y. Lin, Chang-Hong Shen, Jia-Min Shieh, Bau-Tong Dai (2012) Low cost high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells with improved light-soaking stability, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 98, p.277-282

Luque, A. and Hedegus, S. (2003) Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2nd Ed.

Markvart, T. and Castañer, L. (2003) Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications, Ed. Elsevier Ltd.

Perpiñán, O. (2018) Energía Solar Fotovoltaica, Creative Commons, Vers. 1.9.

Santamaría, G. and Castejón, A. (2010) Instalaciones solares fotovoltaicas. Ed. Editex, ISBN 8497716558



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Alternate Energy Sources and Technologies