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Nanotechnology Based Solar Cells: A Review

Yajur Dhawan, Amita Agnihotri


In the last few decades, a change in the global climate has given rise to a strong interest in renewable sources of energy and most of all, solar energy, an industry which has gone through steady growth over the last few years. As with most industries, the solar industry also has an equal number of pros and cons. In this scenario, where the biggest and the main pro is the renewable and unending nature of solar power, an equally impactful con that solar power faces is its expensive nature and lack of 100% efficiency This has an impact on large-scale electricity generation and manufacturing. But with the recent advancements in nanotechnology, this side of the coin seems like a trek able hill. Nanostructured materials and devices enable progress that was last seen in the late 1990s using photovoltaic cells. The conclusion was that the aggregate energy conversion efficiency was significantly higher than the conventional solar cells. It is also noteworthy that the optical properties of nano-structured materials find important applications in a number of solar energy utilization schemes and devices. The basic principle would be that nanoscale titanium particles coated in photovoltaic dyes will generate electricity upon absorption of light. The utilization of nanotechnology in various ways to make inexpensive solar cells will help in preserving the environment and could result in more efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

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