Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Optimizing Fusion Zone Grain Size, Hardness and Tensile Strength of Micro Plasma Arc Welded Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) Alloy Using Grey Relational Analysis

A. Sunny Kumar, T.V. Hanumantha Rao, V.V. Kesava Rao


In the present work, Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy sheet of 0.5 mm thick is butt welded using Micro Plasma Arc Welding. Welding input parameters like peak current, base current, pulse rate and pulse width are considered and output responses like fusion zone grain size, hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the welded joint are considered. Taguchi L25 orthogonal matrix is adopted by considering four factors and five levels of weld input parameters. Main plots are drawn to understand the variation of output responses with a variation of weld input parameters. Mathematical models are developed using MINITAB software considering linear function. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is carried out at 95% confidence level. Grey Relational Analysis is carried out by minimizing grain size and maximizing hardness and ultimate tensile strength to find the optimal combination of weld input parameters. The order of importance of weld input parameters is also identified.


Grey relational analysis; micro plasma arc welding; titanium

Full Text:



Donachie MJ. Titanium A Technical Guide, 2nd ed. ASM International; 2000.

Karimzadeh F, Salehi M, Saatchi A, Meratian M. Effect of microplasma arc welding process parameters on grain growth and porosity distribution of thin sheet Ti6Al4V alloy weldment. Materials and Manufacturing Processes. 2005; 20 (2): 205–219p.

Karimzadeh F, Ebnonnasir A, Foroughi A. Artificial neural network modeling for evaluating of epitaxial growth of Ti6Al4V weldment. Materials Science and Engineering A. 2006; 432: 184–190p.

Prasad KS, Rao CS, Rao DN. Optimization of fusion zone grain size, hardness and ultimate tensile strength of pulsed current micro plasma arc welded Inconel 625 sheets using genetic algorithm. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2016; 85 (8-12): 2287-2295p.

Prasad KP, Rao CS, Rao DN. Optimizing Fusion Zone Grain Size and Ultimate Tensile Strength of Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welded Inconel 625 Alloy Sheets using Hooke & Jeeves Method. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. 2012; 3 (1): 87–100p.

Prasad KS, Rao CS, Rao DN. Effect of pulsed current micro plasma arc welding process parameters on fusion zone grain size and ultimate tensile strength of Inconel 625 sheets. Acta Metallurgica Sinica. 2012; 25 (3): 179–189p.



  • There are currently no refbacks.