Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Fabrication and Performance Analysis of Automatic Dual-axis Sun Tracking System using LDR Sensors

Harishchandra Thakur, Surya Vikram Singh, Puneet Kumar, Shobhit Singh Verma, Mukesh Kumar


Solar energy is experiencing exponential growth as a viable technique of increasing renewable energy resources. Engineers need to be versed with the innovation used in this domain.Since the solar array can remain oriented to the sun, solar tracking enables considerably increased power generation. A dual-axis solar tracker can track the Sun's radiation on both horizontal and
vertical axes at the same time. They work on the same concept as astronomical telescope mountings. The system tracks seasonal fluctuations and daily tilt to maximize efficiency. The project focuses on the design and fabrication of an automatic dual-axis solar tracker prototype that runs on Arduino code and uses LDR sensors. The technology can imitate the sun tracking for a year in just a few minutes, allowing the tracking system to be automated. The adoption of a solar
distributed generation system could benefit people in underdeveloped countries. A scaled-down dual-axis solar tracker is designed, manufactured, and tested to create a solar distributed generating system with high efficiency. To validate the design, a functioning system will be exhibited.


Solar tracker; LDR; Microcontroller; Geared DC motor; Power gain

Full Text:



T. S. Zhan, W. M. Lin, M. H Tsai, and G. S. Wang, “Design and implementation of the dual- axis solar tracking system,” IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications, 276-277 (2013).

H. K Nayak, M. Kumar, N. Prasad, and R. R. Behera, “Fabrication and Experimental Study on Two-Axis Solar Tracking,” International Journal of Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering, 1(1) 123-126 (2011).

R. A. Ferdaus, M. A. Mohammed, S. Rahman, S. Salehin, and M. A. Mannan, “Energy efficient hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system,” Journal of Renewable Energy, (2014). |

B. N. Mohapatra, and R. K. Mohapatra, “Microcontroller based dual-axis solar tracking system,” International Journal of Computer Applications, 975 8887 (2015).

A. E. Hammoumi, S. Motahhir, A. E. Ghzizal, A. Chalh, and A. Derouich, “A simple and low‐cost active dual‐axis solar tracker,” Energy science & engineering, 6(5) 607-620 (2018).

S. Kar, S. Layek, amd S. Das, “Microcontroller based dual-axis solar tracking system,” Advances in Industrial Engineering and Management, 6(1) 43-47 (2017).

C. Jamroen, C. Fongkerd, W. Krongpha, P. Komkum, A. Pirayawaraporn, and N. Chindakham, “A novel UV sensor-based dual-axis solar tracking system: Implementation and performance analysis,” Applied Energy, 299 117295 (2021).

K. Salgaonkar, A. Shirodkar, A. Yedurkar, A. Mohite, “Automated Dual-axis Solar Tracking System using LDR Sensors,” International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), 06(7) (2017).

M. Saeedi, and R. Effatnejad, “A new design of dual-axis solar tracking system with LDR sensors by using the wheatstone bridge circuit.” IEEE Sensors Journal, 21(13) 14915-14922 (2021).

L. L. Oo, and N. K. Hlaing, “Microcontroller-based two-axis solar tracking system,” IEEE -Second international conference on computer research and development, 436-440 (2010).

A. Sawant, D. Bondre, A. Joshi, P.Tambavekar, and A. Deshmukh, “Design and analysis of automated dual-axis solar tracker based on light sensors,” IEEE 2nd International Conference on I- SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud, 454-459 (2018).

V. S. S. Kumar, and S. Suryanarayana, “Automatic dual-axis sun tracking system using LDR sensor,” International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 4(5) 3214-3217 (2014).

J. M. Wang, and C. L. Lu, “Design and implementation of a sun tracker with a dual-axis single motor for an optical sensor-based photovoltaic system,” Sensors, 13(3) 3157-3168 (2013).

K. S. Gaeid, M. N. Uddin, M. K. Mohamed, and O. N. Mohmmoud, “Design and implement of dual-axis solar tracker system based arduino. Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences,” 27(2) 71-81 (2020).

C. Jamroen, P. Komkum, S. Kohsri, W. Himananto, S. Panupintu, and S.Unkat, A low-cost dual- axis solar tracking system based on digital logic design: Design and implementation, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 37 100618 (2020).

M. Bajpai, and P. Saxena, “Arduino Based Dual-axis Solar Tracking System with Voltage and Temperature Measurement,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Applied Sciences and Engineering (IJIRASE) 4(8) 873-878 (2021).

M. Saeedi, and R. ffatnejad, “A new design of dual-axis solar tracking system with LDR sensors by using the wheat-stone bridge circuit,” IEEE Sensors Journal, 21(13) 14915-14922 (2021).

Y. Boukdir, and El Omar, “High Precision Low-Cost Dual-axis Sun Tracker Based on Three Light Sensors,”

J. K. Kumar, J.Nivas,, S. Sankar, and R. Uthirasamy, “Dual Axis Solar Tracking System using LDR Sensors,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1916 012128 (2021).

K. Vidanapathirana, K. A. H. S. Kumarapeli, M. A. D. D. Marasinghe, D. P. Amarasinghe, and J. R. Lucas, “Performance Evaluation of a Hybrid Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System,” IEEE 3rd International Conference on Electrical Engineering (EECon), 50-55 (2021).

U. Mamodiya, and N. Tiwari, “Investigation for Performance Comparison of Solar Tracking System with Static Solar System,” ECS Transactions, 107(1), 8551 (2022).

S. Ahmad, A. N. Razali, and M. I. Misrun, “Effective and Low-Cost Arduino based Dual-Axis Solar Tracker,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1878(1) 012049) (2021).

S. L. Gbadamosi, Design and implementation of IoT-based dual-axis solar PV tracking system. Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, 57-62 (2021). doi:10.15199/48.2021.12.09.

M. B. Prakash, and K .Govindarajulu, “Analysis and Testing of Dual Axis Solar Tracker for Standalone PV Systems using Worm Gear,” International Journal for Modern Trends in Science and Technology, 8(01) 1-8 (2022).

A. Singh, S. Adhav, A. Dalvi, A. Chippa, and M. Rane, Arduino based Dual Axis Solar Tracker. IEEE Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Smart Energy (ICAIS), 1789-1793 (2022).

D. Venkatakrishna, E. S. Sai, and K. S.Hari, “Improved Structure of Automatic solar tracking system,” (2015).


Available: light-dependent-resistor-21105369062.html.


Available: 10971658455.html.

V. Kumar, Sundara Siva, and S. Suryanarayana. "Automatic dual Axis sun tracking system using LDR sensor." International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 4 (5) 3214-3217 (2014).

H. K. Nayak, M. Kumar, N. Prasad, and R. R. Behera, “Fabrication and Experimental Study on Two-Axis Solar Tracking,” International Journal of Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering, 1(1) 123-126 (2011).

M. Elimelech, and W.A. Phillip, “The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment,” Science (80-. )., 333 (6043) 712–717 (2011). doi:10.1126/science.1200488.

M.J. Moran, H.N. Shapiro, D.D. Boettner, and M.B. Bailey, “Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics,” Wiley, 2010. C.

M.A. Lambert, and B.J. Jones, “Automotive adsorption air conditioner powered by exhaust heat. part 2: detailed design and analysis,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D J. Automob. Eng., 220 (7) 973–989 (2006). doi:10.1243/09544070JAUTO222.

“Keeping an eye on the big picture,” n.d. (accessed September 25, 2018).

T.A., Khan, Khan T.A., Yadav, A.K. A hydrodynamic cavitation-assisted system for optimization of biodiesel production from green microalgae oil using a genetic algorithm and response surface methodology approach, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, , 2022

Yadav, A.K. , Khan, M.E., Pal A., Biodiesel Production from Oleander (Thevetia Peruviana) Oil and Its Performance Testing on a Diesel Engine, Korean J. Chem. Eng., 2017; 34(2):340-345

Yadav A.K., Dewangan A., & Mallick A., Effect of n-Butanol and Diethyl Ether Additives on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Pongamia Biodiesel Blends. Journal of Energy Engineering, (2018), 144 (6), 04018062 (Publisher–ASCE-ASME; SCI Indexed)

A.K., Yadav, Dewangan A., & Mallick A., Synthesis and Stability Study of Biodiesel from Kachnar Seed Oil, Journal of Energy Engineering. (2018), 144 (5), 04018053

Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal A., Ultrasonic Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Karabi Oil using Heterogeneous Catalyst, Biofuels, 2018:9;101–112

Yadav, A.K., Vinay, Singh, B., Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Annona Squamosa Seeds Oil Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Characterization" Energy Sources, Part A. 2018; 40(9) 1051-1059

A.K., Yadav , Khan T.A., Khan T.A., and Kumar S., Methyl ester of Gmelina arborea oil as a substitute for petroleum diesel: an experimental study on its performance and emissions in a diesel engine, Energy Sources, Part A, doi:10.1080/15567036.2019.1636164

Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal A., Custard Apple Seed (Annona Squamosa) Oil as a Promising Feedstock for Biodiesel Production using Advanced Techniques and Its Experimental Investigations on an Agricultural Diesel Engine., Int. J. of Oil, Gas and Coal Tech., 2019: 20(4) 473-492

A., Dewangan, Yadav A.K. & Mallick A., Optimization of Biodiesel Production and Engine Performance from Underutilized Simarouba Oil in Compression Ignition Engine, Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Tech., 2020: 25(3) 357

Khan ,I. A., Singh S. K., Yadav A. K., Efficient Production of Biodiesel from Cannabis Sativa oil using Intensified Transesterification (Hydrodynamic Cavitation) Method, Energy Sources, Part A, DOI: 10.1080/15567036.2019.1607946

Dewangan, A., Mallick, A., Yadav, A. K., Comparative study of Manilkara Zapota and Karanja based Biodiesel Properties and Its Effect on Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Characteristics. Energy Sources, Part A, DOI.10.1080/15567036.2019.1661551

Singh, S., Singh, B., Kumar, S., and Yadav, A.K., Temperature-dependent dynamic hysteresis scaling of ferroelectric hysteresis parameters of lead free [(Ba 0.825 + xCa0.175-x) (Ti1- x Snx)O3]ceramics, Ferroelectrics, 2019, Vol. 551, 133–142

Vinay, Singh B., Yadav, A. K., Optimization of Performance and Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Mahua Oil Methyl Ester-Diesel Blend using Response Surface Methodology, Int. J. of Ambient Energy (2020) 674-85 44(6)

I. A., Khan, Singh S. K., Yadav A. K., & Sharma D., Enhancement in the Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Pongamia Methyl Ester and n-Butanol as Oxygenated Additive, Int. J. of Ambient Energy, 2019, 40(8), 842–846

A. K., Yadav, Singh, S., Gupta, G. Ghosh, U., Generation of Electricity through Staircase. Advance Science Letter , 2014;20: 1303–1306

Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal A., Sharma D., Optimization of biodiesel production from bitter groundnut oil using Taguchi method and its performance and emissions characteristics on a 4-cylinder Tata Indica engine. Int. J. Sust. Agri. Mgt. and Informatics, (2015), 1, .285–300

A.K., Yadav, Khan, M.E., Pal A., Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Stationary Diesel Engine fuelled by Schleichera Oleosa oil Methyl Ester (SOME) Produced through Hydrodynamic Cavitation Process, Egypt. J. of Petroleum, (2018): 27; 89–93 A.K., Yadav, Khan, M.E., Pal A., Kaner biodiesel production through hybrid reactor and its performance testing on a CI engine at different compression ratios. Egypt. J. of Petroleum, 2017; 26, 525–532

Khan T.A, Yadav, A. K., Khan, M.E., Experimental Studies on Utilization of Neochloris Oleoabundans Microalgae Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine, , Int. J. of Ambient energy, doi;10.1080/01430750.2022.2120909



  • There are currently no refbacks.