Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Compact MIMO Antenna Array based on Koch Fractal Metamaterial for 5G Applications

Taha A. Elwi, Hassaan Ali Hindi Al-Ameri, Mohammed Noori Maged, Noor M. Noori, Osman Nur İuçan


In this paper, a design of a printed MIMO antenna array for 5G applications is proposed based on low profile structure. Thus, the antenna element is designed as a printed mender monopole with a partial ground plane. The partial ground plane is proposed to realize bandwidth enhancements through etching rectangular slots in the antenna back panel. It is found that such antenna shows two frequency bands, S11<-10dB, from 3 GHz to 5.5 GHz with maximum coupling below-15dB. Nevertheless, the maximum antenna gain is found to be about 4.8 dBi at 3.5 GHz. It is observed that the proposed antenna slots affects significantly on the antenna directivity and the radiation patterns. The antenna performance is parametrically analyzed using a commercial numerical software package based on CST MWS algorithms and circuit analytical solutions. Moreover, the proposed fractal structure is found to operate as a matching circuit to give another resonant frequency and enhance the antenna performance. Next, to validate the obtained results, the evaluated results from CST MWS are compared to those obtained from HFSS software package


Meander line antenna, MIMO, Koch fractal geometry, 5G antenna, HFSS software

Full Text:



N. Cohen, Fractal antenna and fractal resonator primer, Chapter 8 in J.A. Rock and M. van Frankenhuijsen [Eds.], Fractals and Dynamics in Mathematics, Science, and the Arts: Theory and Applications, vol. 1. World Scientific, 2015.

Ahmed, Hayder Salah. Fractal Based Multi-Band Reject Filter. Diss. University of Technology, 2015.

Hayder S. Ahmed, Ali J. Salim, Mohammed R. Hussan, Hussain A. Hammas, Mahmood T. Yassen, Saad Mutashar and Jawad K. Ali, “Design of Compact Dual-Mode Fractal Based Microstrip Band Reject Filter,” ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 13, no. 7, pp.2395–2399, April 2018.

Juan de Dios Ruiz, Fe´ lix L. Martı´nez, and Juan Hinojosa,”1D Koch Fractal Electromagnetic Bandgap Microstrip Structures With r/a Ratios Higher Than 0.5,” microwave and optical technology letters, vol 53, no. 3,pp. 646-649, March 2011

Shrivishal Tripathi, Akhilesh Mohan, Sandeep Yadav, “A Compact Koch Fractal UWB MIMO Antenna with WLAN Band-Rejection,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 14, pp. 1565 – 1568, 12 March 2015.

Mayur P. Satpute, and Prof. Sachin S. Khade, “A Novel Shape Octagonal Koch Fractal MIMO Antenna for WLAN and WiMAX Application,” 2016 World Conference on Futuristic Trends in Research and Innovation for Social Welfare (Startup Conclave), Coimbatore, India, 29 Feb.-1 March 2016.

Shrivishal Tripathi, Akhilesh Mohan, and Sandeep Yadav, “A Compact Octagonal shaped Fractal UWB MIMO Antenna with 5.5 GHz Band-notch Characteristics,” 2014 IEEE International Microwave and RF Conference (IMaRC), Bangalore, India, 15-17 Dec. 2014.

W. Roh et al., “Millimeter-wave beamforming as an enabling technology for 5G cellular communications: Theoretical feasibility and prototype results,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 106–113, Feb. 2014.

J.G. Andrews et al., “What will 5G be?,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 32, pp. 1065–1082, June 2014.

P. Wang, Y. Li, L. Song and B. Vucetic, “Multi-gigabit millimeter wave wireless communications for 5 G: from fixed access to cellular networks,” in IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 168-178, January 2015.

S. Gupta, Z. Briqech, A.R. Sebak, and T.A. Denidni, “Mutual-Coupling Reduction Using Metasurface Corrugation for 28 GHz MIMO Applications,” Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, pp. 1-4, 2017.

Falconer, Kenneth (2003). Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. xxv. ISBN 978-0-470-84862-3.

T. A. Elwi, “Printed Microwave Metamaterial-Antenna Circuitries on Nickel Oxide Polymerized Palm Fiber Substrates,” Nature Scientific Reports, volume 9, number 2174, pp. 1-14, January 2019.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Microwave Engineering and Technologies