Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Enhancement of Dielectric Properties of PVDF Composites with MWCNT and GCNF Fillers

Chethan P. B., Ganesh Sanjeev


The paper discusses the role of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and graphitized carbon nanofibre (GCNF) in Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites prepared by melt mixing method. Analytical studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for understanding the role of fillers. Formation of β phase crystalline structure with a relative increase in β phase content is observed and is maximum at 5 wt.% of multiwalled carbon nanotube and graphitized carbon nanofibre. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis has revealed modifications in the surface morphology and the microstructure of the composites. The dielectric properties of the PVDF composites were studied from 20 Hz to 10 MHz and the addition of fillers is observed to significantly improve the dielectric properties of PVDF composites. It is established from the AC conductivity measurements that the conduction mechanism in the composites follows the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model.


Composites, dielectric properties, PVDF, β phase

Full Text:



Huang X, Jiang P. Core–Shell Structured High- k Polymer Nanocomposites forEnergy Storage and Dielectric Applications. Adv. Mater. 2014; 27(3): 546-54p.

Dang ZM, Zheng MS, ZhaJW.1D/2D Carbon Nanomaterial-Polymer Dielectric Composites with High Permittivity for Power Energy Storage Applications. Small.2016; 12(13): 1688-701p.

You Y, Zhan C, Tu L, et al. Polyarylene Ether Nitrile-Based High-k Composites for Dielectric Applications. Int. J. Polym. Sci.2018; 2018 1-15p. doi: 10.1155/2018/5161908.

Panwar V, Kang B, Park J, et al. Study of dielectric properties of styrene-acrylonitrile graphite sheets in low and high frequency region. Eur. Polym. J.2009; 45:1777-84p.

Sousa PM, Chu V, Conde JP. Mechanical properties of polymer/carbon nanotube composite micro-electromechanical systems bridges. J. Appl. Phys. 2013; 113: 134508 1-9p.

Verma M, Verma P, Dhawan SK, et al. Tailored graphene based polyurethane composites for efficient electrostatic dissipation and electromagnetic interference shieldingapplications.RSC Adv.2015; 5: 97349-58p.

Yang K, Huang X, Fang L, et al. Fluoro-polymer functionalized graphene for flexible ferroelectric polymer-based high-k nanocomposites with suppressed dielectric loss and low percolation threshold. Nanoscale.2014; 6: 14740-53p.

Shehzad K, Hakro A, Zeng Y, et al. Two percolation thresholds and remarkably high dielectric permittivity in pristine carbon nanotube/elastomer composites. Appl. Nanosci.2015; 5: 969-74p.

Chowdhury SA, Saha MC, Patterson S, et al. Highly Conductive Polydimethylsiloxane/Carbon Nanofiber Composites for Flexible Sensor Applications. Adv. Mater. Tech.2019; 4(1): 1800398 1-10p.

Jaitanong N, Yimnirun R, Zeng HR, et al. Piezoelectric properties of cement based/PVDF/PZT composites. Mater. Lett.2014; 130:146-49p.

Gregorio RJr. Determination of the α, β, and γ Crystalline Phases of Poly (vinylidene fluoride) Films Prepared at Different Conditions. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.2006; 100: 3272-79p.

Raun L, Yao X, Chang Y, et al. Properties and Applications of the β Phase Poly (vinylidene fluoride). Polymers.2018; 10(228): 1-27p.

Xia W, Zhang Z.PVDF-based dielectric polymers and their applications in electronic materials. IET Nanodielectrics.2018; 1(1): 17-31p.

Kabir E, Khatun M, Nasrin L, et al. Pure β-phase formation in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-carbon nanotube composites. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.2017; 50(16): 163002, 1-25p.

Shah D, Maiti P, Gunn E, et al. Dramatic Enhancements in Toughness of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanocomposites via Nanoclay-Directed Crystal Structure and Morphology. Adv. Mater.2004; 16:1173-77p.

Haldorai Y, Shim J. In: Thomas S, Muller R, Abraham J, editors. Manufacturing Polymer Nanocomposites. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Publishing; 2016.

Georgousis C, Pandis C, Kalamiotis A, et al. Strain sensing in polymer/carbon nanotube composites by electrical resistance measurement. Compos. Part B-Eng.2015; 68: 162-169p.

Achaby ME, Arrakhiz FZ, Vaudreuil S, et al. Preparation and Characterization of Melt-Blended Graphene Nanosheets–Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanocomposites with Enhanced Properties. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2012; 127(6): 41577 1-8p.

Ke K, Potschke P, Jehnichen D, et al. Achieving β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) from melt cooling: Effect of surface functionalized carbon nanotubes. Polymer2014; 55: 611- 19p.

Kripotou S, Sovatzoglou S, Pandis C, et al. Effects of CNT inclusions on structure and dielectric properties of PVDF/CNT nanocomposites. Phase Transit.2016; 89: 717-30p.

He L, Xia G, Sun J, et al. Unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes-incorporated poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites with enhanced interface and piezoelectric β phase .J. Colloid Interf. Sci.2013; 393: 97-103p.

Yu S, Zheng W, Yu W, et al. Formation Mechanism of β-Phase in PVDF/CNT Composite Prepared by the Sonication Method. Macromol.2009; 42: 8870-74p.

Boccaccio T, Bottino A, Capannelli G, et al. Characterization of PVDF membranes by vibrational spectroscopy. J. Membrane Sci.2002; 210: 315-29p.

Martins P, Lopes AC, Mendez SL. Electroactive phases of poly(vinylidene fluoride): Determination, processing, and applications. Prog. Polym. Sci.2014; 39: 683-706p.

Gomes J, Nunes JS, Sencadas V, et al. Influence of the β-phase content and degree of crystallinity on the piezo- and ferroelectric properties of poly (vinylidene fluoride). Smart Mater. Struct. 2010; 19: 065010 1-7p.

Wu CM, Chou MH. Polymorphism, piezoelectricity, and sound absorption of electrospun PVDF membranes with and without carbon nanotubes. Compos. Sci. Technol.2016; 127: 127-33p.

Tsonos C, Pandis C, Soin N, et al. Multifunctional nanocomposites of poly(vinylidene fluoride) reinforced by carbon nanotubes and magnetite nanoparticles. Express Polym. Lett.2015; 9(12): 1104-18p.

Ramasubramaniam R, Chen J. Homogenous carbon nanotube/polymer composites for electrical applications. Appl. Phys. Lett.2003; 83(14): 2928-30p.

Greenhoe BM, Hassan MK, Wiggins JS, et al. Universal Power Law Behavior of the AC Conductivity Versus Frequency of Agglomerate Morphologies in Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Epoxy Networks. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys.2016; 54(19): 1918-23p.

Arya A, Sadiq M, Sharma AL. Effect of variation of different nanofillers on structural, electrical,dielectric, and transport properties of blend polymer nanocomposites.Ionics2018; 24: 2295–319p.

Mansour SA, Al-ghoury ME, Shalaan E, et al. Dielectric Dispersion and AC Conductivity of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber-Poly(vinyl chloride)/Graphite Composite. J.Appl. Polym. Sci. 2011; 122: 1226-35p.

An N, Liu S, Fang C, et al. Preparation, and properties of β-phase Graphene Oxide/PVDF Composite Films. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015; 132(10): 41577 1-8p.

Yuan JK, Yao SH, Dang ZM, et al. Giant Dielectric Permittivity Nanocomposites: Realizing True Potential of Pristine Carbon Nanotubes in Polyvinylidene Fluoride Matrix through an Enhanced Interfacial Interaction. J. Phys. Chem. C.2011; 115: 5515-21p.

Li YJ, Xu M, Feng JQ et al. Dielectric behavior of a metal-polymer composite with low percolation threshold. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2006;89: 072902 1-3p.

Ram R, Rahaman M, Khastgir D. Electrical properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) semi-transparent composites: Modelling of DC conductivity. Compos. Part A-Appl. S. 2015; 69: 30-39p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.