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Chemical and Electrocoagulation for Chromium (VI) Removal from Galvanic Effluents

Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry


Industrial effluents usually contain 10 to 500 mg/l Cr(VI); that according to international
environmental rules must be set at permissible levels before being discharged into the environment.
The upper permitted levels of chromium are 0.5 mg/l for effluent discharge and 0.01 mg/l for drinking
water respectively. Hexavalent chromium is a very toxic heavy metal moiety occurring in various
industrial wastewaters, such as electroplating, anodizing, tanning and dyeing effluents. Industrial
effluents may contain hundreds of mg/l of Cr(VI), whereas the upper allowed limit for effluent
discharge to aquatic systems is 0.5 mg/l. In the present study, the removal of chromium from
industrial electroplating effluents is presented using the chemical coagulation with addition of iron
sulfate coagulant and the electrocoagulation process with iron electrodes. Both processes achieved a
rapid and effective chromium removal of over 99.9%, with the electrochemical process being superior
in terms of the total operational costs.


Chemical coagulation, electrocoagulation, hexavalent chromium, ferrous sulfate, iron electrodes

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