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Utilization of Bentonite Clay Coupled with Potash for the Synthesis of Octadec-9-Enoic Acid Methyl Esters of Pongamia Pinnatatriglycerides

Susarla Venkata Ananta Rama Sastry


Due to the ever increasing human population worldwide, especially in the developing countries across the world; renewable energy sources are in the primary focus of the scientists and researchers. In addition, the depletion of the reserves of the fossil fuels along with the increased consumption of the available reserves has led to wide spread global unrest. Complementing the above, there are significant environmental problems namely global warming due to increased global temperature resulting in the melting of polar ice caps, ozone layer depletion due to ozone-hole formation, etc. All these need exigent responsiveness. Across the world, the governments are alarmed about the endeavors of industrial production and transportation. There are numerous health effects due to the exhaust emissions from the automobiles using the fossil fuels. All this has compelled the research on environment friendly fuels like bio-ethanol and biodiesel as preeminent substitutions to the conventional fossil fuels. This paper discusses about the utilization of bentonite clay coupled with potash for the synthesis of Octadec-9-enoic acid methyl esters of pongamia pinnata triglycerides. The maximum yield of methyl esters was obtained at a volumetric methanol-oil ratio of 10:1, temperature of 70°C, reaction time of 75 minutes and catalyst concentration of 10 wt %. Furthermore, the characterization study of the catalyst confirmed the occurrence of active sites on the surface. The reaction mechanism was found through the kinetic studies on methanolysis. The usage of heterogenous catalyst ensured the absence of any side reactions like the formation of soap.


Biomass, clay, fatty acid methyl esters, bentonite, pongamia pinnata, transesterification

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