Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Role of GO and rGO on the Structural Properties of PA6/PMMA Blend Nanocomposites

Srinivas Yekkala, Madhukar Katakam, Ramesh Suramoni, Mohan Babu Nandru


To understand and assess the role of Graphene Oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in the PA6/PMMA blend, nanocomposites, the PA6/PMMA (50:50 wt%) blend-based nanocomposites were prepare by loading different wt% of GO and rGO (1wt% and 3wt%), through twin screw melt extrusion followed by injection moulding technique. Different compositions of the nanocomposites were prepared using melt mixed method at 2300C by applying a rotational torque 50 N. All the specimens were prepared as per the ISO/ASTM standards. The prepared specimens were stored in moisture free bags, until further use. In order to understand the role of GO and rGO on the structural properties the PA6/PMMA blend nanocomposites, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopic studies were carried out. The FTIR studies confirm the occurrence of all the characteristic peaks pertaining to the functional groups of the composites. It was also observed from the FTIR spectra that interactions among the different functional groups of the GO and rGO and PA6/PMMA observed. The XRD analysis of nanocomposites revealed the complete exfoliation of the GO and rGO in the PA6/PMMA polymer matrix and uniform dispersion of nanofiller in the matrix. These developed nanocomposites are suitable for biomedical, environment, shielding, energy and gas sensing applications.


Polymer blends, PA6, PMMA, Graphene Oxide, reduced Graphene, FTIR, XRD

Full Text:



Sun J, Wang C, Shen T, et al. Engineering the Dimensional Interface of BiVO4-2D Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) Nanocomposite for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Performance. Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(6):907.

Hu K, Kulkarni DD, Choi I, Graphene-polymer nanocomposites for structural and functional applications. Prog. in Polym. Sci. 2014; 39(11): 1934-1972.

Kiziltas A, Liu W, Tamrakar S, Graphene nanoplatelet reinforcement for thermal and mechanical properties enhancement of bio-based polyamide 6, 10 nanocomposites for automotive applications. Composites Part C: Open Access. 2021; 6: 100177.

Dutta V, Singh P, Shandilya P, et al. Review on advances in photocatalytic water disinfection utilizing graphene and graphene derivatives-based nanocomposites. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2019; 7(3): 103132.

Deshmukh K, Pasha SKK. Room temperature ammonia sensing based on graphene oxide integrated flexible polyvinylidenefluoride/cerium oxide nanocomposite films. Polym-Plast. Tech. Mat. 2020; 59(13): 1429-1446.

Huang X, Qi X, Boey F, Zhang H. Graphene-based composites. Chem. Soc. Rev.. 2012; 41(2): 666-686.

Chikyu N, Nakano T, Kletetschka G, Excellent electromagnetic interference shielding characteristics of a unidirectionally oriented thin multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyethylene film. Mater. Des. 2020; 195: 108918.

Mohan VB, Lau K-t, Hui D, Graphene-based materials and their composites: A review on production, applications and product limitations. Compos. B. Eng. 2018; 142: 200-220.

Mathew T, Sree RA, Aishwarya S, et al. Graphene-based functional nanomaterials for biomedical and bioanalysis applications. Flat Chem. 2020; 23: 100184.

Liao C, Li Y, Tjong SC. Antibacterial Activities of Aliphatic Polyester Nanocomposites with Silver Nanoparticles and/or Graphene Oxide Sheets. Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(8): 1102.

Silva M, Alves NM, Paiva MC. Graphene-polymer nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Polym. Adv. Technol. 2018; 29(2): 687-700.

Kumar S, Reddy KR, Reddy CV, et al. Metal Nitrides and Graphitic Carbon Nitrides as Novel Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and Environmental Remediation. In: Balakumar S, Keller V, Shankar MV, editors. Nanostructured Materials for Environmental Applications.Switzerland: Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2021. p. 485-519.

Vergnes B. Influence of Processing Conditions on the Preparation of Clay-Based Nanocomposites by Twin-Screw Extrusion. Int. Polym. Process. 2019; 34(5): 482-501p.

Madhukar K, Sainath AVS, Rao BS, et al. Role of carboxylic acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes in polyamide 6/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend. Polym. Eng. Sci. 2013; 53(2): 397-402.

Madhukar K, Sainath AVS, Bikshamaiah N, et al. Thermal properties of single walled carbon nanotubes composites of polyamide 6/poly(methyl methacrylate) blend system. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 2014; 115(1): 345-354.

Bikshamaiah N, Babu NM, Kumar DS, et al. Carbon nanotube functional group-dependent compatibilization of polyamide 6 and poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites. Iran. Polym. J. 2021; 30(8): 789-99.

Abbasi H, Antunes M, Velasco JI. Recent advances in carbon-based polymer nanocomposites for electromagnetic interference shielding. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2019; 103: 319-73.

Tang L-S, Yang J, Bao R-Y, et al. Polyethylene glycol/graphene oxide aerogel shape-stabilized phase change materials for photo-to-thermal energy conversion and storage via tuning the oxidation degree of graphene oxide. Energy Convers. Manag. 2017; 146: 253-264.

Suhas DP, Aminabhavi TM, Jeong HM, Hydrogen peroxide treated graphene as an effective nanosheet filler for separation application. RSC Adv. 2015; 5(122): 100984-100995.

Kim KT, Dao TD, Jeong HM, Graphene coated with alumina and its utilization as a thermal conductivity enhancer for alumina sphere/thermoplastic polyurethane composite. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2015; 153: 291-300.

Nguyen DA, Raghu AV, Choi JT, Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Functionalised Graphene Sheet Nanocomposites Prepared by the in Situ Polymerisation Method. Polym. Polym. Compos. 2010; 18(7): 351-358p.

Mittal G, Dhand V, Rhee KY, A review on carbon nanotubes and graphene as fillers in reinforced polymer nanocomposites. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2015; 21: 11-25.

Bai L, Li Z, Zhang Y, et al. Synthesis of water-dispersible graphene-modified magnetic polypyrrole nanocomposite and its ability to efficiently adsorb methylene blue from aqueous solution. Chem. Eng. J. 2015; 279: 757-766.

Potts JR, Dreyer DR, Bielawski CW, Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. Polymer. 2011; 52(1): 5-25p.

Wang B, Al Abdulla W, Wang D, A three-dimensional porous LiFePO4 cathode material modified with a nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel for high-power lithium ion batteries. Energy Environ. Sci. 2015; 8(3): 869-875p.

Zhang K, Zhang LL, Zhao XS, Graphene/Polyaniline Nanofiber Composites as Supercapacitor Electrodes. Chem. Mater. 2010; 22(4): 1392-1401.

Li Y, Yan D. Preparation, characterization and crystalline transition behaviors of polyamide 4 14. Polymer. 2001; 42: 5055-5058.

Liu D, Zheng Q, Lu S, Li C, Lu P, Yu J. A New Method to Prepare Low Melting Point Polyamide-6 and Study Crystallization Behavior of Polyamide-6/Calcium Chloride Complex by Rheological Method. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2015; 132(8).

Wu Q, Liu X, Berglund L. FT-IR spectroscopic study of hydrogen bonding in PA6/clay nanocomposites. Polymer. 2002; 43(8): 2445-2449.

Haris MRHM, Kathiresan S, Mohan S. FT-IR and FT-Raman Spectra and Normal Coordinate Analysis of Poly methyl methacrylate. Der Pharma Chem. 2010; 2(4): 316-323.

Lee KPM, Czajka M, Shanks R, Low-defect graphene–polyamide-6 composites and modeling the filler–matrix interface. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2020; 137(18): 48630.

Johra FT, Lee JW, Jung WG. Facile and safe graphene preparation on solution based platform. J. Ind. Eng. Chem.2014; 20(5), 2883–2887.

Yasin G, Arif M, Shakeel M, et al. Exploring the Nickel–Graphene Nanocomposite Coatings for Superior Corrosion Resistance: Manipulating the Effect of Deposition Current Density on its Morphology, Mechanical Properties, and Erosion-Corrosion Performance. Adv. Eng. Mater. 2018; 20(7): 1701166.

Wang H, Zhang D, Yan T, Graphene prepared via a novel pyridine–thermal strategy for capacitive deionization. J. Mater. Chem.. 2012; 22(45): 23745-23748.

Raghu AV, Jeong HM. Synthesis, characterization of novel dihydrazide containing polyurethanes based on N1,N2-bis[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]ethanedihydrazide and various diisocyanates. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2008; 107(5): 3401-3407.

Anjanapura R, Gadaginamath G, Priya M, Synthesis and characterization of novel polyurethanes based on N1,N4‐bis[(4‐hydroxyphenyl)methylene]succinohydrazide hard segment. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2008; 110(4): 2315-2320.

Han Y, Wu Y, Shen M, Preparation and properties of polystyrene nanocomposites with graphite oxide and graphene as flame retardants. J. Mater. Sci. 2013;48(12):4214-4222.

Tiwari SK, Verma K, Saren P, et al. Manipulating selective dispersion of reduced graphene oxide in polycarbonate/nylon 66 based blend nanocomposites for improved thermo-mechanical properties. RSC Adv. 2017; 7(36): 22145-22155.



  • There are currently no refbacks.