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Design and Implementation of PID Controller for Self Balancing Robot

Joshua A., Subha Hency Jose



For control engineers to study, apply and verify different control methods, inverted pendulum is a very good platform. Nearly 90% of the industries use the concept of inverted pendulum like ship balancing against of sea tide and control of rockets, space ships and landing of aero planes. The simple pendulum is stable while hanging downwards, but the inverted pendulum is a genetically unstable system. To make the inverted pendulum a flawless system, a force has to be applied in proper manner. To do this, a good control theory is needed. Since the inverted pendulum is a nonlinear and open loop system, the standard technique cannot be used to model the system. But if the operating range is small (angle displacement), then it can be approximated to a linear system. Self-balancing robot is based on the principle of inverted pendulum, a two wheeled vehicle balances in the vertical position by making ground as reference. It consists both hardware and software implementation. A generic conventional feedback controller (Proportional Derivative Integral controller) is used to find its stable inverted position. A microcontroller, IMU (Inertial Mass Unit) sensor and motor driver are the basic properties to make a robot. And a mechanical architecture used two high torque metal dc gear. The main objective of the project is to balance the robot i.e., to avert the two wheeled robot from falling by giving acceleration to the wheels which is proportional to the inclination angle from the centre point. When the robot starts to fall in one direction, the motor rotates proportional to the falling direction with the speed proportional to the acceleration of inclined angle. In this project, the PID control algorithm is used to balance the controller which has three adjustable parameters that can be determined from several techniques. LabVIEW simulation is developed to study the working of robot with the IMU sensor. 

Keywords: Arduino microcontroller, inertial mass unit, accelerometer, gyroscope, LabVIEW

Cite this Article

Joshua A, Subha Hency Jose. Design and Implementation of Pid Controller for Self Balancing Robot. Recent Trends in Sensor Research & Technology. 2018; 5(2):12–19p.

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