Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


Carlos Armenta-Deu, Quentin Jach


The paper is focused to the design and development of a new hybrid system to power electric vehicles. The system is made up of a conventional lithium battery that is used to propel the vehicle when there is no acceleration or the acceleration and power demand are low or moderate, and a supercapacitor that powers the electric vehicle at high power demand periods or when the acceleration is relevant. The system has been modelled and simulated for a Tesla model 3 to determine the improvement in the driving range when using the hybrid system in comparison with the conventional configuration of a single battery. The simulation has been previously verified comparing the results for the battery system to those provided by the manufacturer. The results of the simulation have shown the driving range is lower than expected because the energy recovering system has not been included in the calculation; applying a correction factor that takes into account the energy recovering the results of the simulation match the predicted driving range from the manufacturer data sheet, being in the upper range of the electric vehicle autonomy. Using the validated proposed methodology the simulation has been applied to the hybrid system, resulting in an extension of the driving range of 74 km, from an initial value of 472 km to a final one of 546 km, what represents an improvement of 15.7%. Using this improvement percentage and considering the energy recovering factor applies to the hybrid system as well as for the conventional battery equipped electric vehicle, the driving range can be extended up to 719 km, which represents a very long distance, enough to cover intercity trip distances.


Electric vehicle. Lithium-ion batteries. Supercapacitor. Performance improvement. Driving range enlargement. Driving protocol.

Full Text:



Dietrich Schwela, Olivier Zali (1999) Urban Traffic Pollution. 1st ed. CRC Press. London. E-book (2014), ISBN: 9780429079368; doi:

Chuanwang Sun, Yuan Luo, Jianglong Li (2018) Urban traffic infrastructure investment and air pollution: Evidence from the 83 cities in China, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 172, Pages 488-496

I. A. Istrate, T. Oprea, E. C. Rada, V. Torretta (2014) Noise And Air Pollution From Urban Traffic, WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Volume 131, Pages 1381-1389

Srecko Stankovic, Vojkan Vaskovic, Natasa Petrovic, Zoran Radojicic, Milos Ljubojevic (2015) URBAN TRAFFIC AIR POLLUTION: CASE STUDY OF BANJA LUKA, Vol. 14 Issue 12, p. 2783-279

Ibai Laña, Javier Del Ser, Ales Padró, Manuel Vélez, Carlos Casanova-Mateo (2016) The role of local urban traffic and meteorological conditions in air pollution: A data-based case study in Madrid, Spain, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 145, Pages 424-438

Rui Xie, Dihan Wei, Feng Han, Yue Lu, Jiayu Fang, Yu Liu, Junfeng Wang (2019) The effect of traffic density on smog pollution: Evidence from Chinese cities, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 144, Pages 421-427

N. Al-Mutairi and P. Koushki (2009) Potential Contribution of Traffic to Air Pollution in the State of Kuwait, American Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 3, Pages 218-222

Yuhong He and Chaocheng Zheng (2018) Traffic pollution and countermeasures of urban traffic environment, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 108, Issue 4, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 108 042042

David Calef, Robert Goble (2007) The allure of technology: How France and California promoted electric and hybrid vehicles to reduce urban air pollution, Policy Sciences, Volume 40, pages 1–34

L.Duque, H.Relvas, C.Silveira, J.Ferreira, A.Monteiro, C.Gama, S.Rafael, S.Freitas, C.Borrego, A.I.Miranda (2016) Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 127, Pages 196-204

Urban Air Pollution - European Aspects. J. Fenger, O. Hertel, F. Palmgren (editors), Springer (1999)

M.Pascal, M.Corso, O.Chanel, C.Declercq, C.Badaloni, G.Cesaroni, S.Henschel, K.Meister, D.Haluz, P.Martin-Olmedo, S.Medina (2013) Assessing the public health impacts of urban air pollution in 25 European cities: Results of the Aphekom project, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 449, Pages 390-400

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Tom Denton. Institute of the Motor Industry. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (2016) ISBN: 9781138842373 (paper); 9781315731612 (ebook)

Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Principles and Applications with Practical Perspectives. Chris Mi, M. Abdul Masrur and David Wenzhong Gao. John Wiley and Sons (2011). ISBN: 978-0-470-74773-5 (print); 978-1-119-99891-4 (ebook)

X. D. Xue; K. W. E. Cheng; N. C. Cheung (2008) Selection of Electric Motor Drives for electric vehicles, Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, 14-17 Dec. 2008, IEEE Conferences, INSPEC Accession Number: 10571845

Merve Yildirim, Mehmet Polat, Hasan Kürüm (2014) A survey on comparison of electric motor types and drives

Nasser Hashemnia, Behzad Asaei (2008) Comparative study used for electric vehicles, 16th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference and Exposition, 21-24 Sept, IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 14819024of using different electric motors in the electric vehicles, 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines, 6-9 Sept., IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 10519475

Chokri Mahmoudi; Aymen Flah; Lassaad Sbita (2014) An overview of electric Vehicle concept and power management strategies, International Conference on Electrical Sciences and Technologies in Maghreb (CISTEM), 3-6 Nov., IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 15026148

EV battery basics: All you need to know about kW, kWh, and charging speed (2020) TNW News.

Beatriz Junquera, Blanca Moreno, Roberto Álvarez (2016) Analyzing consumer attitudes towards electric vehicle purchasing intentions in Spain: Technological limitations and vehicle confidence, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 109, Pages 6-14

João C. Ferreira, Vitor Monteiro, João L. Afonso (2013) Dynamic range prediction for an electric vehicle, World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 17-20 Nov., IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 14649080, DOI: 10.1109/EVS.2013.6914832

R.A.Hanifah, S.F.Toha, S.Ahmad (2015) Electric Vehicle Battery Modelling and Performance Comparison in Relation to Range Anxiety, Procedia Computer Science, Volume 76, Pages 250-256

Jeremy Neubauer, Eric Wood (2014) The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility, Journal of Power Sources, Volume 257, Pages 12-20

Roberto Alvarez, Alberto López, Nieves De la Torre (2014) Evaluating the effect of a driver’s behaviour on the range of a battery electric vehicle, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, SAGE Journals,

J. T. B. A. Kessels, B. Rosca, H. J. Bergveld, P. P. J. van den Bosch (2011) On-line battery identification for electric driving range prediction, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 6-9 Sept., IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Accession Number: 12339243, DOI: 10.1109/VPPC.2011.6043022

Saman Ahmadi, S.M.T. Bathaee, Amir H. Hosseinpour (2018) Improving fuel economy and performance of a fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle (fuel-cell, battery, and ultra-capacitor) using optimized energy management strategy, Energy Conversion and Management, Volume 160, Pages 74-84

New European Driving Cycle: Accessed online on 24th of May, 2022)

World Harmonised Light Vehicles Test Procedure. (Accessed online on 24th of May, 2022)

EPA Traceability Protocol for Assay and Certification of Gaseous Calibration Standards | US EPA. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (Accessed online on 24th of May, 2022)

JC08 Protocol. Emission Test Cycles: Japanese JC08 Cycle ( (Accessed online on 24th of May, 2022)

E/ECE/324/Rev.2/Add.100/Rev.3 or E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.2/Add.100/Rev.3 (12 April 2013), "Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions", Addendum 100: Regulation No. 101

E/ECE/324/Rev.1/Add.82/Rev.4 or E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.1/Add.82/Rev.4 (26 April 2011), "Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform technical prescriptions for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the basis of these prescriptions", Addendum 82: Regulation No. 83,

E/ECE/324/Rev.1/Add.83 or E/ECE/TRANS/505/Rev.1/Add.83 (23 August 1991), "Agreement concerning the adoption of uniform conditions of approval and reciprocal recognition of approval for motor vehicle equipment and parts", Addendum 83: Regulation No. 84

"Emission Test Cycles: ECE 15 + EUDC / NEDC". July 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2015.

"Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) - Transport - Vehicle Regulations - UNECE Wiki".

"Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/1832 of 5 November 2018 amending Directive 2007/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 and Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 for the purpose of improving the emission type approval tests and procedures for light passenger and commercial vehicles, including those for in-service conformity and real-driving emissions and introducing devices for monitoring the consumption of fuel and electric energy (Text with EEA relevance.)". 27 November 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2021

FTP-75 Protocol. (Accessed online on 24th of May, 2022)

DieselNet Emission Test Cycles - FTP-75. (Accessed online on 24th of May, 2022)

Google Earth.

C. Armenta-Déu, J.P. Carriquiry, S. Guzmán (2019) Capacity Correction Factor for Li-ion Batteries: Influence of the Discharge Rate, Journal of Energy Storage, Volume 25, October 2019, 100839, doi:

C. Armenta-Déu and Quentin Jach (2022) Study and analysis of the influence of supercapacitor constant time in the charge-discharge process of a coupled lithium battery in Electric Vehicles, Scientific Report, Project GER-01/22: Enlargement of Driving Range of Electric Vehicles, May 27, 2022, Renewable Energy Group, Faculty of Physics, Complutense University of Madrid

C. Armenta-Déu and Q. Jach (2022) Development of a control system to regulate the performance of supercapacitors in Electric Vehicles, Internal report. Renewable Energy Group.



  • There are currently no refbacks.