Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Principles and Use of Analytical Transmission Electron Microscope

Prantik Mukhopadhyay


At the beginning of the review the analytical Transmission Electron Microscope is introduced. Equipment, imaging, diffraction and use of analytical TEM are described. Electron path under magnetic lens is delineated, emphasizing the lens aberrations, diffraction, astigmatism and gun brightness. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of Al-Cu and Inconel super alloy are used to index crystallographic planes and to derive zone direction while basic sources of diffraction contrast are depicted using Al-Cu Alloy, Bearing Steel, Ti6Al4V Alloy, Hastelloy and Al-Mg Alloy. Electron microscopy techniques to characterize dislocations and orientation relationship are described precisely. Present trend of advanced electron microscopy are highlighted emphasizing strain measurement of semiconductor.


TEM; Bright Field; Dark Field; SAED Indexing and Intensity; Characterizing Dislocation; Semiconductor Strain Measurement

Full Text:




Doig A. Military Metallurgy, London, Maney, 1998.

Dieter GE. Mechanical Metallurgy, New York, Mc-Graw Hill, 1986.

Gottstein G. Physical Foundation of Material Science, Berlin, Springer, 2004.

Verma AK, Shingweker A, Nihichlani AM, Singh V, Mukhopadhyay P. Deformation characterization of cartridge brass, Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Science, 2013, 20, 283-288.

Hagos S, Verma AK, Mukhopadhyay P, Singh AK. Contribution of process annealing on the development of microstructure and texture of Cu-30Zn brass, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, 2013, 382534, doi. 10.1155/2013/382534.

Han XZ, Xu WC, Shan DB. Effect of precipitates on microstructures and properties of forged Mg–10Gd–2Y–0.5Zn–0.3Zr alloy during ageing process, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2011, 509, 8625-8631.

Fu H, Zhang Z, Yang Q, Xie J, Morphology of the boron- rich phase along columnar grain boundary and its effect on the compression crack of Fe–6.5Si–0.05B alloy, Materials Science and Engineering A, 2011, 528, 1425-1430.

Li H, Feng YL, Song M, Liang JL, Cang DG, Effect of normalizing cooling process on microstructure and precipitates in low-temperature silicon steel, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2014, 24, 770-776.

Zhang J, Guo ZX, Pan F, Li Z, Luo X, Effect of composition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–Zn–Al alloys, Materials Science and Engineering A, 2007, 456, 43-51.

Avner SH. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy, New Delhi, TATA Mc-Graw Hill, 2001.

Fultz B, Howe JM. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 2001.

Goodhew PJ, Humphreys FJ. Electron Microscopy and analysis, London, Taylor & Francis Ltd., 2001.

Williams DB, Carter CB. Transmission Electron Microscopy for Materials Science, New York, Plenum Press, 1996.

Joy DC, Roming AD, Goldstein JI. Principles of Electron Microscopy, New York, Plenum Press, 1986.

Edington JW. Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science,1, Netherlands, Philips Technical Lib. 1974.

Smith FG, Thomson JH. Transmission Electron Microscope of Materials, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1979.

Malac M, Beleggia M, Egerton R, Zhu Y, Bright-field TEM imaging of single molecules: Dream or near future? Ultramicroscopy, 2007, 107, 40–49.

Wayne R. Bright-Field Microscopy, Light and Video Microscopy, 2nd Edition, 2014, 79-96.

Mitsuishi K, Hashimoto A, Takeguchi M, Shimojo M, Ishizuka K. Imaging properties of bright-field and annular-dark-field scanning confocal electron microscopy, Ultramicroscopy, 2010, 111, 20-26.

Yao B, Sun T, Warren A, Heinrich H, Barmak K, Coffey KR. High contrast hollow-cone dark field transmission electron microscopy for nanocrystalline grain size quantification, Micron, 2010, 41, 177-182.

Djerdj I, Tonejc AM, Structural investigations of nanocrystalline TiO2 samples, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2006, 413, 159-174.

Das S, Datta S, Mukhopadhyay AK, Pal KS, Basu D. Al–Al2O3 core–shell composite by microwave induced oxidation of aluminium powder, Materials Chemistry and Physics, 2010, 122, 574-581.

Beeston BEP, Horne RW, Markham R. Electron Diffraction and Optical Diffraction Techniques, Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company, 1973.

Stadelmann P, Leifer K, Verdon C. EDS and EELS using a TEM-FEG microscope, Ultramicroscopy, 1995, 58, 35-41.

McComb DW, Weatherly GC. The effect of secondary electrons generated in a commercial FEG-TEM on electron energy-loss spectra, Ultramicroscopy, 1997, 68, 61-67. 26. Alamir ASA. Magnetic electron lenses performance, Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron Optics, 2001, 112, 507-510.

Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, 3. J. W. Edington, 1975, Philips Technical Lib. Netherlands.

Practical Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, 4. J. W. Edington, 1976, Philips Technical Lib. Netherlands.

Uesugi F. Strain mapping in selected area electron diffraction method combining a Cs-corrected TEM with a stage scanning system, Ultramicroscopy, 2013, 135, 80–83.

Hytch M, Houdellier F, Hue F, Snoeck E. Nature, 2008, 453, 1086-U5.

Sarigiannidou E, Monroy E, Daudin B, Rouviere JL, Andreev AD. Applied Physics Letter, 2005, 87, 203112-3.

Hue F, Hytch M, Bender H, Houdellier F, Claverie A. Physical Review Letters, 100, 2008, 156602-4.

Vajargah SH, Couillard M, Cui K, Tavakoli SG, Robinson B, Kleiman RN, Preston JS, Botton GA, Applied Physics Letter, 2011, 98, 082113.

Clement L, Pantel R, Kwakman L, Rouviere J. Applied Physics Letter, 2004, 85, 651-653.

Lichte H, Börrnert F, Lenk A, Lubk A, Röder F, Sickmann J, Sturm S, Vogel K, Wolf D. Electron holography for fields in solids: Problems and progress, Ultramicroscopy, 2013, 134, 126–134.

Javon E, Lubk A, Cours R, Reboh S, Cherkashin N, Houdellie F, Gatel C, Hÿtch MJ, Dynamical effects in strain measurements by dark-field electron holography, Ultramicroscopy, 2014, 147, 70–85.

Mahalingam K, Haugan HJ, Brown GJ, Eyink KG, Quantitative analysis of interfacial strain in InAs/GaSb superlattices by aberration-corrected HRTEM and HAADF-STEM, Ultramicroscopy, 2013, 127, 70–75.

Zuo J, Shah AB, Kim H, Meng Y, Gao W. Jean-LucRouviére, Lattice and strain analysis of atomic resolution Z-contrast images based on template matching, Ultramicroscopy, 2014, 136, 50–60.

Kotaka Y, Yamazaki T, Ohtsuka M, Watanabe K, Image formation mechanisms of spherical aberration corrected BF STEM imaging methods, Ultramicroscopy, 2014, 136, 119–126.

McVitie S, McGrouther D, McFadzean S, MacLaren DA, O’Shea KJ, Benitez MJ, Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy, Ultramicroscopy, 2015, 152, 57–62.


  • There are currently no refbacks.