Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Scheduled Charging and Discharging of Electric Vehicles for Charging Cost Optimization

Naveen ., Dr. Puneet Pahuja


The growing number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will have remarkable impacts on the power grid as it leads to the increase in total energy consumption. This increases the overall burden on the grid which would require new power plants. However, it is possible to minimize the impact by proper scheduling for charging and discharging of electric vehicles. In this paper, three optimal schemes have been compared i.e. global optimal scheduling scheme and local optimal scheduling scheme and equal allocation scheme for EV charging and discharging. The first objective is to flatten the load profile. The EVs can be charged during off peak hours when the demand is less and can be discharged during peak hours when the demand is high. It will result in the constant power demand from the grid. The second objective is to minimize the total charging cost through scheduled charging and discharging.

The globally optimal scheduling scheme provides the globally minimal total cost but this scheme is impractical as it require information about future base loads and arrival time of each EV and charging periods of EV’s that will arrive in future. While local optimal scheduling scheme is quite practical as it considers only current ongoing EV sets. This scheme is scalable and resilient to dynamic EV arrival. In equal allocation scheme; the charging power of an EV is allocated based on the electricity price on the previous day in an interval. Secondly, the charging power is equal in each interval. The total cost for each scheme is calculated. Moreover, through the software tool, we demonstrate that the locally optimal scheduling scheme can achieve a close performance compared to the globally optimal scheduling scheme.


Electrical Vehicles, charging, load profile , local optimal scheduling , global optimal scheduling Equal allocation

Full Text:



T. Tazoe, et al., "Novel scheduling method to reduce Energy cost by cooperative control of smart houses" International Conference on Power System Technology, IEEE, pp. 1–6, Nov 2012

Christophe Guille and George Gross, “Design of a conceptual framework for theV2G implementation,” in Proc. IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, pp. 1–3, Nov. 2008

W. Shireen and S. Patel, “Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the smart grid environment,” in Proc. IEEE PES Transmission Distribution Conference, pp. 1–4, Apr. 2010.

Chris Hutsonet et al., “Intelligent scheduling of hybrid and electric vehicle storage capacity in a parking lot for profit maximization in grid power transactions,” in Proceedings IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, pp. 1–8, Nov. 2008.

Olivier Tremblay, et al., “A Generic Battery Model for the Dynamic Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles” in IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 284–289, Sept. 2007.

Iordanis Koutsopoulos and Lenandros Tassiulas, “Control and Optimization meet the Smart Power Grid : Scheduling of Power demand for Optimal Energy Management” in proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, pp. 41–50 Aug. 2011.

Jay Taneja, et al., “Flexible Loads in Future Energy Networks” in proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Future energy systems pp. 285–286, May 2013.

D. Madzharov, et al., “Integrating electric vehicles as flexible load in unit commitment modeling”, Elsevier Journal, pp. 285–294, Feb 2014.

Z.J. Ma, et al., “Decentralized charging control for large populations of plug-in electric vehicles: Application of the Nash certainty equivalence principle,” in Proceeding IEEE International Conference Control Application, pp. 191–195, Sep. 2010.

Fangxing Li, et al., “Smart transmission grid: Vision and framework,” IEEE Transaction Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 168–177, 2010.

K. Mets, et al., “Optimizing smart energy control strategies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging,” in Proceedings IEEE/IFIP Network Operations Management Symposium (NOMS), pp. 293–299, 2010.

A.Y. Saber and G.K. Venayagamoorthy, “Optimization of vehicle-to-grid scheduling in constrained parking lots,” in Proceeding IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PES), pp. 1–8, July 2009

S. Bashash, et al., “Charge trajectory optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for energy cost reduction and battery health enhancement,” in Proceedings American Control Conference pp. 5824–5831, Jun. 2010.

O. Sundstrom and C. Binding, “Optimization methods to plan the charging of electric vehicle fleets,” in Proceeding International Conference Control Communication, Power Engineering (CCPE), pp. 323–328, Jul. 2010.

P.S. Moses, et al., “Power quality of smart grids with plug-in electric vehicles considering battery charging profile,” in Proceedings 2010 IEEE PES Innovation Smart Grid Technology Conference Europe, pp. 1–7, Oct. 2010.

K. Clement, et al., “Stochastic analysis of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the distribution grid,” in Proceeding International Conference Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, pp. 1–4 Jun. 2009.

E. Sortomme and M. A. El-Sharkawi, “Optimal charging strategies for unidirectional vehicle-to-grid,” IEEE Transaction on Smart Grid, 2011.

S. Kabisch, et al., “Interconnections and communications of electric vehicles and smart grids,” in Proceeding IEEE International Conference Smart Grid Communication, pp. 161–166, Oct. 2010.

M. Singh, I. Kar, and P. Kumar, “Influence of EV on grid power quality and optimizing the charging schedule to mitigate voltage imbalance and reduce power loss,” in Proceeding International Power Electron. Motion Control Conference, pp. T2-196–T2-203, Sep. 2010.

Siddhartha Mal, et al., “Electric vehicle smart charging and vehicle-to grid operation” International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems, vol. 27, no. 3., pp. 249–265, Mar. 2012.

S. Rahman and G.B. Shrestha, “An investigation into the impact of electric vehicle load on the electric utility distribution system” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 8, No. 2, Apr. 1993.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Microelectronics and Solid State Devices